11th If-Clause & Wish

I. If-Clause Type
a. Type zero
Used to express a general truth. Usually, Present Simple Tense are used to this type
  • If you drop an apple, it falls. Fact = An apple falls, if you drop it.
  • If you don’t do your homework, I will be disappointed. Fact = I will be disappointed, if you don’t do your homework.
In this type, word “if” can be replaced with “when”
b. Type I
Used to express a conditional that made from the fact that can be happened, either it fact in the present time, or the future. If-clause usually in Simple Present Tense form.
  • If I have time today, I will phone my friend. Fact = I will phone my friend, if I have time today.
  • If I go to England, I will buy some Cheddar cheese. Fact = I will buy some Cheddar cheese, if I go to England.
c. Type II
Used to express where the situation isn’t real, either in present time or in future. If-clause usually in Simple Past Tense form.
  • If I were you, I wouldn’t do that. Fact = I wouldn’t do that, if I were you.
  • If I had more time, I would do more on my websites. Fact = I would do more on my websites, if I had more time.
d. Type III
Used to express situation in the past time that can’t be happen again. If-clause usually in Past Perfect Tense form.
  • If I hadn’t helped you, you would have failed. Fact = You would have failed, if I hadn’t helped you.
  • If it had been sunny, we could have gone out. Fact = We could have gone out, if it had been.
a. Future Wish
S + wish + (that) +
S + could + verb1
S + would +verb1
S + were + verb-ing

  1. I wish my friend would visit me this afternoon. (Saya berharap teman saya akan mengunjungi saya sore ini). Fact : my friend will not come this afternoon.
  2. They wish that you could come to the party tonight. (Mereka berharap bahwa kamu bisa datang sebentar malam). Fact : you can’t come.
  3. Bobby wishes he were coming with Angelia. (Bobby berharap dia datang dengan Angelia). Fact: Bobby is not coming with Angelia.

b. Present wish

S + wish + (that) + S + verb2
  1. wish I were rich. (Saya berharap saya kaya). Fact adalah: I am not rich.
  2. wish had enough time to finish my work. (Saya berharap saya punya cukup waktu untuk menyelesaikan pekerjaan saya). Fact: I don’t have enough time to finish my work.
  3. John wishes that Ririn were old enough to be his girl friend. (John berharap bahwa Ririn cukup umur untuk menjadi pacarnya). Fact: Ririn is not old enough to be John’s girl friend.
  4. wish didn’t have to come to class today. (Saya berharap saya tidak harus pergi kuliah hari ini). Fact: I have to go to class today.
  5. wish my TOEFL score were over 650 now. (Saya berharap nilai TOEFL saya sekarang lebih dari 650). Fact: my TOEFL score is not over 650 now.

c. Past wish

S + wish + (that) +
S + have + verb3
S + could + have + verb3
  1. I wish I had washed my clothes yesterday. (Saya berharap saya telah cuci pakaian-pakaian saya kemarin). Fact: I didn’t wash my clothes yesterday.
  2. Irwan wishes that he had answered the questions well. (Irwan berharap bahwa dia telah menjawab soal-soal dengan baik). Fact: Irwan didn’t answer the questions well.
  3. Christian Ronaldo wishes that his team could have beaten the German team. (Christian Ronaldo berharap bahwa teamnya dapat mengalahkan team Jerman). Fact: Christian Ronaldo’s team couldn’t beat the German team.
  4. I wish you had been here last night. (Saya berharap kamu ada di sini tadi malam). Fact: you were not here last night.

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